As a skilled and experienced Pain Medicine Interventionalist, Dr. Levin evaluates each patient very thoroughly and carefully to help determine appropriate treatment options in order to provide the most effective individualized care. These treatment options may include: Lumbar, Thoracic and Cervical Epidural Steroid Injections utilizing targeted transforaminal techniques, Lumbar and Cervical Sympathetic Blocks, Sphenopalatine, Facial and Head and Neck Procedures, Discography, Percutaneuos Discectomy or Disc Decompression procedures, precision joint and nerve injections, Radiofrequency Neuroablative procedures, Peripheral or Spinal Cord Stimulator trials and implants, Foraminoplasties and several patented and patent pending advanced interventional procedures.
The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.
Corticosteroid refractory graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the major challenges in the management of allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Although numerous agents have been employed to treat this patient population, no standardized second-line therapy exists. In this study, we report our experience with the administration of tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin 6 receptor antibody, in the treatment of steroid refractory GVHD. Tocilizumab was administered to 8 patients with refractory acute (n = 6) or chronic GVHD (cGVHD) (n = 2) once every 3 to 4 weeks. The majority of patients with acute GVHD (aGVHD) had grade IV organ involvement of the skin or gastrointestinal tract, whereas both patients with cGVHD had long-standing severe skin sclerosis at the time of treatment. There were no allergic or infusion-related adverse events. Treatment was discontinued in one patient over concerns that tocilizumab may have worsened preexisting hyperbilirubinemia. Several patients also had transient elevations in serum transaminase values. Infections were the primary adverse events associated with tocilizumab administration. Four patients (67%) with aGVHD had either partial or complete responses apparent within the first 56 days of therapy. One patient with cGVHD had a significant response to therapy, whereas the second had stabilization of disease that allowed for a modest reduction in immune suppressive medications. These results indicate that tocilizumab has activity in the treatment of steroid refractory GVHD and warrants further investigation as a therapeutic option for this disorder.