Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder that can cause tumors in various parts of the central nervous system (CNS). There are two types of neurofibromatosis. Type 1, the more common kind, usually occurs outside of the CNS. Type 2 occurs within the CNS. Type 2 neurofibromatosis causes multiple CNS tumors, including neurofibromas, multiple meningiomas, bilateral vestibular schwannomas, optic nerve gliomas, and spinal cord tumors. Symptoms include loss of balance, tinnitus, total hearing loss, facial pain or numbness, and headache. Surgery is the standard treatment.
Herpes zoster can often be a sign of decreasing cellular immunity associated with progression of HIV disease. Herpes zoster results from reactivation of the latent VZV and produces symptoms of burning pain, dysesthesia, and vesicular eruptions along the distribution of the affected nerve. In a prospective study of 48 high-risk patients with VZV infection of the thoracic region, Friedman-Kien et al.( 13 ) found that 73% (35 of 48) were seropositive for HIV, and 17% (8 of 35) developed Centers for Disease Control (CDC)-defined AIDS during the 10- to 24-month follow-up, suggesting that VZV reactivation may be an early indication of progression of HIV disease. The diagnosis is usually based on the clinical appearance and confirmed with a Tzanck smear or viral culture.