Raw celery and grapefruit are often claimed to have negative caloric balance (requiring more energy to digest than recovered from the food), presumably because the thermic effect is greater than the caloric content due to the high fibre matrix that must be unraveled to access their carbohydrates. However, there has been no research carried out to test this hypothesis and a significant amount of the thermic effect depends on the insulin sensitivity of the individual, with more insulin-sensitive individuals having a significant effect while individuals with increasing resistance have negligible to zero effects.  
Diabetes tipo 1. La diabetes tipo 1 ocurre cuando el páncreas no produce o secreta suficiente insulina. Los síntomas de esta enfermedad incluyen orinar en exceso, tener mucha sed y mucha hambre y perder peso. A la larga, esta enfermedad puede provocar problemas renales, dolor provocado por lesiones neuronales, ceguera y enfermedad cardiovascular. Los jóvenes que padecen diabetes tipo 1 necesitan inyectarse insulina regularmente y controlarse la concentración de azúcar en sangre a fin de reducir el riesgo de desarrollar problemas de salud a consecuencia de la diabetes.
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are misused to a high extent in sports by athletes to improve their physical performance. Sports federations consider the use of these drugs in sports as doping. The misuse of AAS is controlled by detection of the parent AAS (when excreted into urine) and (or) their metabolites in urine of athletes. I present a review of the metabolism of AAS. Testosterone is the principal androgenic steroid and its metabolism is compared with that of AAS. The review is divided into two parts: the general metabolism of AAS, which is separated into phase I and phase II metabolism and includes a systematic discussion of metabolic changes in the steroid molecule according to the regions (A-D rings), and the specific metabolism of AAS, which presents the metabolism of 26 AAS in humans.