Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane vesicles, and represent an endogenous mechanism for intercellular communication. Since the discovery that EVs are capable of functionally transferring biological information, the potential use of EVs as drug delivery vehicles has gained considerable scientific interest. EVs may have multiple advantages over currently available drug delivery vehicles, such as their ability to overcome natural barriers, their intrinsic cell targeting properties, and stability in the circulation. However, therapeutic applications of EVs as drug delivery systems have been limited due to a lack of methods for scalable EV isolation and efficient drug loading. Furthermore, in order to achieve targeted drug delivery, their intrinsic cell targeting properties should be tuned through EV engineering. Here, we review and discuss recent progress and remaining challenges in the development of EVs as drug delivery vehicles.
In addition to caffeine, the Pure Food and Drug Act required that drugs such as alcohol , cocaine , heroin , morphine , and cannabis , be accurately labeled with contents and dosage. Previously many drugs had been sold as patent medicines with secret ingredients or misleading labels. Cocaine, heroin, cannabis, and other such drugs continued to be legally available without prescription as long as they were labeled. It is estimated that sale of patent medicines containing opiates decreased by 33% after labeling was mandated.  The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 is cited by drug policy reform advocates such as James P. Gray as a successful model for re-legalization of currently prohibited drugs by requiring accurate labels, monitoring of purity and dose, and consumer education.